Time

Quantitative and Qualitative Multiplicities

I’ve written previously about spatial and temporal integration. Luhmann argued that in modern society temporal integration becomes more powerful than spatial integration. Here is an excerpt from The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on Bergson. It illustrates the concept of quantitative multiplicity: When we look at a flock of sheep, what we notice is that they […]

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Managing the future

There is a different sense of time in modern, functionally differentiated society. The temporal distinction in premodern society was time/eternity, while in modern society observes time as the difference between past and future. Here is a Google Books Ngram for the words the future from 1800-2000: A future-oriented society is concerned with risk management, as discussed […]

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Risk Management

In a post from last year, I wrote about Luhmann’s Risk: A Sociological Theory (1993 English translation). The main idea is that functional differentiation is associated with a shift from danger to risk. The difference is that danger is random while risks are associated with human decisions and the assumption that the future is not predetermined. […]

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Luhmann: Law, Justice, and Time

Given that the function of the law is to stabilize normative expectations, time is the most relevant dimension (out of three dimensions: factual, social, and temporal). In an article titled “Luhmann: Law, Justice, and Time,” Richard Nobles & David Schiff (2013) wrote: Time is central to Luhmann’s writings on social systems. Social systems, as systems of […]

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Time

Time is not a simple fact or universal given. It is a schema used for reducing system complexity, and every system has its own sense of time.  There are as many times are there are systems. Observation can occur in three dimensions: factual, social, and temporal.

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