Theodicy and Morality

In A Systems Theory of Religion, Luhmann addresses the question of why God has created or permitted the difference between good and bad, and why he does not use the possibilities available to him to help the good triumph instead of the bad. Only in the modern era do people speak of “theodicy,” but it […]


Morality and Ethics

I am still thinking about the place of morality in social systems theory. I am interested in how the concept of morality changes as society moves from centralization and stratification to functional differentiation. For instance, in the economy, morality doesn’t register at all. Prices have information value, but not morality. In the health (or medical) […]