If we are going to discuss social change, we have to consider the materials, technologies, or media that facilitate and shape communication. We can’t just
When discussing organizations, which Luhmann argues consist entirely of decision-based communication, one might ask about buildings, desks, chairs, telephones, computers, electricity, as well as human beings. Aren’t these things essential to most organizations? Shut off the electricity or the Internet access and most organizations stop functioning. Thus, a common criticism of social systems theory relates to materialism or material agency.
People often talk about the transition to modern society in terms of the history of ideas. We can discuss an number of important books and