If we wish, we may observe the increased specialization of science or academic research through a moral lens. For example, if we consider the science
System irritation is always self-irritation. Irritation always arises from the internal comparison of an event with established structures, which in the case of social systems are
In The Division of Labor in Society, Durkheim argues that the collective conscience, or the social integrating force of morality, progressively diminishes, and the focus
Luhmann argued that moral communication loses influence in a functionally differentiated society because the function system are amoral. Moral communication cannot compete with the communication
System rationality means that one takes this back or that one denies the indifference of the system (the fact that whatever happens in the environment does not happen to us) and instead strengthens the irritability, sensitivity, or resonance (or whatever term may be used) of the system.
Luhmann has been criticized for defining communication too narrowly, not taking into account nonverbal communication or nonlinguistic communication. We can ask, for instance, does a