Foucault, Luhmann, and the individual

In an army of pikes and muskets – slow, imprecise, practically incapable of selecting a target and taking aim – troops were used as a projectile, a wall or a fortress: ‘the formidable infantry of the army of Spain’; the distribution of soldiers in this mass was carried out above all according to their seniority and their bravery; at the centre, with the task of providing weight and volume, of giving density to the body, were the least experienced; in front, at the angles and on the flanks, were the bravest or reputedly most skilful soldiers.

Foucault on the art of distributions

But the principle of ‘enclosure’ is neither constant, nor indispensable, nor sufficient in disciplinary machinery. This machinery works space in a much more flexible and detailed way. It does this first of all on the principle of elementary location or partitioning. Each individual has his own place; and each place its individual. Avoid distributions in groups; break up collective dispositions; analyse confused, massive or transient pluralities.

Punishment as two-sided form

“The penalty transforms, modifies, establishes signs, arranges obstacles. What use would it be if it had to be permanent? A penalty that had no end would be contradictory: all the constraints that is imposes on the convict and of which, having become virtuous once more, he would never be able to take advantage, would be little better than torture; and the effort made to reform him would be so much trouble and expense lost by society.”–Foucault

Commerce rather than Economy

I prefer the term commerce over economy when referring to the function system that uses money as its symbolically generalized communication medium. Economy has too many possible meanings, such as the wealth or resources of a country or region, careful management of available resources, thrift, good husbandry, etc.

More on structural coupling

The health system translates the science system’s information into treatment-related information. Science knowledge for its own sake has no value for the health system. In a similar way, engineering is sensitive to (has resonance capacity for) information produced by physics, as well as chemistry and other subsystems of science, but only insofar as this information contributes to engineering as a communication system—i.e., as the information contributes to the autopoiesis of engineering communication.

1 2 3 4 5 6 48