The “failure” of the prison system

Penality would then appear to be a way of handling illegalities, of laying down the limits of tolerance, of giving free rein to some, of putting pressure on others, of excluding a particular section, of making another useful, of neutralizing certain individuals and of profiting from others. In short, penality does not simply ‘check’ illegalities; it ‘differentiates’ them, it provides them with a general ‘economy’.

More on individuality

Before the classical age, biographies were less stories of individuals than stories of the holder of some important office of position–e.g., the life of a statesman, general, king, or emperor. For example, Plutarch’s biography of Alexander the Great was the story of a great military leader, not the story of a particular person.

Notes on an article by Niels Åkerstrøm Andersen and Paul Stenner

“In diverging from the classical biological view of the immune system as the part of the organism that defends it against external attacks, Luhmann closely follows developments within biology itself. He orients towards a systems theoretical form of biology that arguably escapes the oft-criticised biological reductionism – of which Durkheim and Parsons stand accused – that would model sociology so problematically upon biology.”

1 2 3 4 48