If not values, then what?

If, for the sake of argument, we say that values have nothing to do with social change, where does that leave us? Setting out this way implies that we’re not necessarily looking for the truth. We are, rather, making the conditional proposition known as If p, then q. If changing values do not produce social change, we can attribute social change to something else.

Correct procedure or justice?

Luhmann argued that the legal system does not seek justice; as a self-referential social system, the legal system doesn’t have a goal other than its own reproduction. Justice is a value, but modern function systems are not undergirded by values. Ethically or morally just outcomes are not important. All that really matters is following established procedure, or due process.

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