In this panoptic society of which incarceration is the omnipresent armature, the delinquent is not outside the law; he is, from the very outset, in the law, at the very heart of the law, or at least in the midst of those mechanisms that transfer the individual imperceptibly from discipline to the law, from deviation to offence. Although it is true that prison punishes delinquency, delinquency is for the most part produced in and by an incarceration which, ultimately, prison perpetuates in its turn.
1656: Dutch mathematician and scientist Christian Huygens invents a pendulum clock. 1660: Cuckoo clocks were made in Furtwangen, Germany, in the Black Forest region. 1675:
Complexity, from a systems theoretical perspective, equates to a system’s horizon of possibilities. A horizon may be approached but never crossed, as it keeps receding.
Luhmann has been criticized for defining communication too narrowly, not taking into account nonverbal communication or nonlinguistic communication. We can ask, for instance, does a
In Organization and Decision, Luhmann argues that a system can only remember itself. The memory function never relates to facts of the outer world .
The nation, or the nation-state, has been the privileged unit of modernity, but has never ruled out entirely other units of mapping cultures – from the “tribal” units of anthropology to the civilizational units of high cultures. These mappings establish boundaries that are thought to express something about what they contain – more often than not a political unit that derives its identity from particular social and cultural practices, the one not clearly distinguished from the other.