The Future as Risk

This post is related to earlier posts on risk and time. In Risk: A Sociological Theory, Luhmann writes, The thesis … More

Managing the future

There is a different sense of time in modern, functionally differentiated society. The temporal distinction in premodern society was time/eternity, … More

Risk Management

In a post from last year, I wrote about Luhmann’s Risk: A Sociological Theory (1993 English translation). The main idea is … More


Time is not a simple fact or universal given. It is a schema used for reducing system complexity, and every … More

Draw a Distinction!

Luhmannian systems theory, as distinguished from the systems theory of the 1950s-60s, begins with the injunction to “draw a distinction.” … More