If you take even a casual look at American history, you will see that major social changes commenced in about 1830–e.g., the Abolitionist movement, Nat
“A large number of passengers were already at the station-house awaiting the departure of the cars. By the aspect and demeanor of these persons it was easy to judge that the feelings of the community had undergone a very favorable change in reference to the celestial pilgrimage. It would have done Bunyan’s heart good to see it.”
If we are going to discuss social change, we have to consider the materials, technologies, or media that facilitate and shape communication. We can’t just
When discussing organizations, which Luhmann argues consist entirely of decision-based communication, one might ask about buildings, desks, chairs, telephones, computers, electricity, as well as human beings. Aren’t these things essential to most organizations? Shut off the electricity or the Internet access and most organizations stop functioning. Thus, a common criticism of social systems theory relates to materialism or material agency.
People often talk about the transition to modern society in terms of the history of ideas. We can discuss an number of important books and
When the economy differentiates as a function system, aristocratic privilege is lost. Moreover, the aristocrats cannot even process as information what is happening around them. They have no way of making sense of it.