“[Evolutionary] advances reduce complexity in order to organize greater complexity on the basis of restriction. Thus a road network reduces the possibilities for movement to enable easier and faster movement and hence increase options for movement concretely available.”
Every attempt to specify causalities engenders ever greater difficulties. What will happen never depends on a single event. It is always a concatenation of circumstances, so that uncertainty multiplies in proportion to the rigour of the analysis. (Risk: A Sociological Theory, 41)
Normality is the distinction between normal and deviant (Luhmann, Risk: A Sociological Theory). It is a difference not a thing-in-itself. This distinction serves as an
The thesis we shall advance is that in the modern period the difference between the past and the future takes control over time semantics and over the adaptation of this semantics to altered social structures.
This is an excerpt of a paper I am working on. There are many versions of systems theory and, obviously, not all systems theorists follow the Luhmannian
One of the best-known early theories by Niklas Luhmann is his theory of trust. In his book, Vertrauen (1968), Luhmann presented his basic theses about trust. The function of trust is to reconstruct or to reduce the growing complexity of society.