Any sign of moral didacticism ruins art, if art is understood as its own autonomous social system. Art, in this sense, cannot be the servant of religion, education, philosophy, science any other kind of communication. These other systems can only use art parasitically.
In modernity, the universal validity of the law comes into question. The law is no longer simply God’s law or the monarch’s law or a reflection of Nature; the law is contingent, and it is not the same thing as justice. The law, like religion, is also only one function system among several. Justice is an idea, concept, aspiration, or topic of conversation, but the law is what society actually uses to stabilize normative expectations. Ibsen and Chekhov shared an interest in the question of morality–specifically, how a morality based on social hierarchy, or stratification, cannot survive in a functionally differentiated society.
Here is a poll that shows that the political system is not so tightly coupled with the religion system. Just 25 percent of Americans say
Religion is usually considered one of the function systems of society; it is one of ten described by Steffen Roth and Anton Schütz (2015) in “Ten
There have been three great eras of social reform/protest in the United States—the 1830s (temperance movement, abolitionism, 1st wave feminist movement), the Progressive Era (1890s-1900s),
This is a sort of continuation of the post on negative and positive integration. In discussing the religion system, Luhmann writes, [What] is so remarkable is