Co-evolution of social classes in Renaissance Florence

From at least the early thirteenth century Florenceā€™s history was dominated by a competition, more intense and longer-lasting than similar confrontations elsewhere in Italy, between two distinct but overlapping political cultures and classes: an elite of powerful, wealthy families of international bankers, traders, and landowners organized as agnatic lineages [of the male bloodline]; and a larger community of economically more modest local merchants, artisans, and professional groups organized in guilds and called the popolo.

A world without leaders

The idea that the president “runs the country” is just nonsense, and our president is certainly not, and never has been, “the leader of the free world.” Speaking of leaders in this way just serves to reassure people that there is someone in charge, someone with a plan, some God figure who is taking care of things. But there isn’t.

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