In “The semantics of twenty-first century socialism and the Venezuelan political system,” José Javier Blanco Rivero writes The French philosopher [Claude Lefort] explains that in the
This idea—that the difference between law and politics is a difference in language—lies at the heart of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theory. Luhmann suggested that society must be understood as a communication system. As such, it is differentiated into different subsystems, among them the political system and the legal system, but also, for example, the religious system, the scientific system, and so on.
Here is a poll that shows that the political system is not so tightly coupled with the religion system. Just 25 percent of Americans say
Identity politics differentiates; it draws distinctions to reveal social oppression or, in Butler’s terminology, precaritization–occupying or being held in precarious position. Identity politics emphasizes differences
Judith Butler, in Notes Toward a Performative Theory of Assembly (2015), argues that marginalized or ignored populations performatively establish “the right to have rights” by
I am interested in looking more closely at what Luhmann says about society organized by stratification. We can take Florence as a case study. In