June 12, 2016 I like reading and listening to David Brooks. I don’t agree with everything he says, but at least he has common sense
Luhmann argues that memory is the capacity to remember and forget. Systems must be able to forget. Memory is a system function (or operation), not a storage space.
If we agree that societies are not grounded in shared norms or values yet still feel the need for a theory of society, we need
Norms are a product of differentiation. Social systems differentiate expected behavior (norms) from actual behavior. That is to say, norms serve as prediction schemata. The norm is the expected. Behavioral norms are expected even if they are not anticipated. For instance, even if we know a person well and we anticipate that he will lie to us, we nonetheless expect him to tell the truth; otherwise we could not engage in communication with that person at all.