In the seventeenth century, there were increasing signs that the moral code was being de-ontologized and coming to be seen as a unity [of a
Under functional differentiation, we have many codes without a middle ground; they are digital rather than analog. These codes serve to make improbable communication more probable. These codes are associated with symbolically generalized communication media, the purpose of which is to make improbable communication, understood broadly, more probable.
When the economy differentiates as a function system, aristocratic privilege is lost. Moreover, the aristocrats cannot even process as information what is happening around them. They have no way of making sense of it.
June 12, 2016 I like reading and listening to David Brooks. I don’t agree with everything he says, but at least he has common sense
Luhmann argues that memory is the capacity to remember and forget. Systems must be able to forget. Memory is a system function (or operation), not a storage space.
If we agree that societies are not grounded in basic norms or shared values yet still feel the need for a theory of society, we