When talking about culture and cultural differences, we typically think in terms of values and beliefs. One culture tends to value X or believe in
In A Systems Theory of Religion, Luhmann addresses the question of why God has created or permitted the difference between good and bad, and why
Samuel Johnson often defended social class stratification. He also associated clothing with class and, by extension, respect. By dressing as someone of the upper class,
As Luhmann argues in Theory of Society, volume 1 and elsewhere, religion always posits some mystery or secret, and occult societies (mystics, gnostics, priests, Masons, Templars,
I am still thinking about the place of morality in social systems theory. I am interested in how the concept of morality changes as society
In a functionally differentiated society, there is no moral center; it is a not a center/periphery society or a top-down, stratified society. While center/periphery and high/low distinctions still operate, they are overruled by functional differentiation.