I prefer the term commerce over economy when referring to the function system that uses money as its symbolically generalized communication medium. Economy has too many possible meanings, such as the wealth or resources of a country or region, careful management of available resources, thrift, good husbandry, etc.
As functional differentiation accelerated in the second half of the 18th century, the system of inherited social ranking came under serious stress. The attack on
The Scottish Enlightenment embarked on nothing less than a massive reordering of human knowledge. It sought to transform every branch of learning—literature and the arts; the social sciences; biology, chemistry, geology, and the other physical and natural sciences—into a series of organized disciplines that could be taught and passed on to posterity.
In modern society, there is a division of labor between the legal system (the law) and the prison (or maybe penal) system. The law has
Luhmann is forever talking about the second half of the 18th century as the pivotal era in the transition to modern society. More specifically, he mentions early 1760s, and the year 1763 comes up in various places. So what was going at this time?
“A large number of passengers were already at the station-house awaiting the departure of the cars. By the aspect and demeanor of these persons it was easy to judge that the feelings of the community had undergone a very favorable change in reference to the celestial pilgrimage. It would have done Bunyan’s heart good to see it.”