Here’s a paradox: Nothing exists for a social system other than what it can observe for itself; thus, for a world without the observing system
System irritation is always self-irritation. Irritation always arises from the internal comparison of an event with established structures, which in the case of social systems are
In the Middle Ages, there was a multitude of classifications for people. (All we need to do is review The Canterbury Tales to gain some
When talking about culture and cultural differences, we typically think in terms of values and beliefs. One culture tends to value X or believe in
Social structures are typically thought of as “patterned social arrangements in society” or “the most basic, enduring, and determinative patterns in social life” (Dictionary of the Social Sciences). But in Luhmannian theory, social structures are not things like family relations, friendships, organizational chains of command, etc. They are expectations. Social structures are expectational structures. We can reduce it to one question: What comes next?
What is the connection between cultural values (norms, expectational structures) and collective memory? Memory does not operate as a storage container. Rather, memory is an