Optimists and pessimists are equally wrong. Given the complexity of contemporary global society, there are no solid grounds for predicting much of anything, especially in
For Luhmann, meaning is an actualization or selection from an uncrossable horizon of possibilities. Meaning is a two-sided form with the actualized meaning on the marked side and all the other potential/unselected meanings on the unmarked side. The communication system selects a meaning from a horizon of possibilities.
A paradox is a statement that is false when it is true and true when it is false. Paradox can occur whenever statements are self-referential. For instance: 1) This statement is false. 2) I am lying. 3) Please ignore this notice. 4) It is forbidden to forbid.
Even among fairly well educated people, there is a fundamental misunderstanding when it comes to the theory of evolution. A student of mine wrote that “humans
One reason someone might confuse Teilhard’s theories with Luhmann, systems theory, or complexity theory is that Teilhard talked about increasing complexity and a sort of global mind–the noosphere, which might be called a system. You might even think of the noosphere as being autonomous and, like social systems, beyond the control of particular human beings.
Here is a passage from Luhmann’s A Systems Theory of Religion: In general, there is no correspondence in the environment of the system for its