The use of conflicts in communication leads to expectable, that is, structural, insecurities. A society that constructs greater complexity must therefore find forms for creating
In The Tree of Knowledge: The Biological Roots of Human Understanding, Maturana & Varela write, Ontogeny is the history of the structural changes in a particular
In the chapter on Contradiction and Conflict in Social Systems, Luhmann writes, One must guard against the widespread error of thinking that destabilization as such
Optimists and pessimists are equally wrong. Given the complexity of contemporary global society, there are no solid grounds for predicting much of anything, especially in
For Luhmann, meaning is an actualization or selection from an uncrossable horizon of possibilities. Meaning is a two-sided form with the actualized meaning on the marked side and all the other potential/unselected meanings on the unmarked side. The communication system selects a meaning from a horizon of possibilities.
A paradox is a statement that is false when it is true and true when it is false. Paradox can occur whenever statements are self-referential. For instance: 1) This statement is false. 2) I am lying. 3) Please ignore this notice. 4) It is forbidden to forbid.