Reproducing Instability

In the chapter on Contradiction and Conflict in Social Systems, Luhmann writes, One must guard against the widespread error of … More

Neither optimism nor pessimism

Optimists and pessimists are equally wrong. Given the complexity of contemporary global society, there are no solid grounds for predicting … More

How systems learn

Here is a passage from Luhmann’s A Systems Theory of Religion: In general, there is no correspondence in the environment … More

System Horizons

The boundary separating system and environment is not like a physical boundary that can looked across. It is more accurately … More