About this blog

In the Forward to the English translation of Luhmann’s Social Systems (1995), Eva M. Knodt writes,

It goes without saying that once social theory has passed the “threshold of complexity,” it defies the linearity of the printed medium. Since there is no first principle or “natural” starting point for such a theory, any particular arrangement in chapters rests on a contingent choice, and it is possible to rewrite the theory in many different ways. Luhmann explicitly invites the reader to experiment with his theory and presents it in such a way as to facilitate recombination by constructing his text in small, relatively discrete units, which progressively open up and explore, with further and further amplification, a given question. (xix)

This is what I have been doing for last few years with this blog. You can start with any post and follow the links or just read in a random sequence. The hypertext medium is perfectly suited for this kind or reading and writing. In reading Social Systems, Knodt continues,

Thus it is possible, for example, to start with the concluding chapter on epistemology and work back to the beginning, a strategy Luhmann adopts in many of his more recent publications. (xix)

In this sense, Luhmann writes like Joyce in Finnegans Wake, a novel that at the end circles back to the beginning. One could read Finnegans Wake starting anywhere.

This blog focuses on social systems theory as developed by Niklas Luhmann (1927-98), Professor¬†of Sociology at Bielefeld University in Germany. The posts are written by Carlton Clark, Lecturer at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. I have also started a Facebook group called Niklas Luhmann Group. Anyone interested in Luhmann’s work is welcome to join.

As noted above, an important feature of this blog is its hypertextual structure. Key concepts in social systems theory are hyperlinked, sort of like in Wikipedia, which means that the blog posts can be read in any order based on associational linkages. You may also navigate by clicking on categories listed at the top of posts. I also frequently update posts as I explore what I’ve written. So the blog is mainly for me, as I use it to work out ideas. But, of course, I am happy to see that other people also read it from time to time.

Incidentally, Luhmann is known to have written in a kind of hypertextual (he kept a card catalogue with thoughts, quotes, etc., that he could mine when writing a book or article) rather than conventionally linear, manner. This style has always appealed to me. I wrote my doctoral dissertation on literary hypertext back when the Internet was still pretty new, and I have probably always thought in a nonlinear, hypertextual way.

You are invited to post comments, as well as to email me at clclark563@gmail.com. I am always encouraged to see that people are actually reading and appreciating the blog.

Note: This blog used to be called Autopoiesis: Producing and Reproducing Social Systems Theory.


  1. Hi Carlton,

    Really enjoying your blog. I am currently using Luhmann as a framework for my phd, namely applying it to the concept of cyberspace. I’m curious, have you spent much time exploring Luhmann’s analytical strategies? I’m focusing on this right now, trying to get a handle on his somewhat unorthodox methodology. Would love to share thoughts or read a future piece on the strategies…


    1. Hi Kirill,
      Thanks very much! I sent you an email in December asking you to tell me more about your research, but didn’t a response. I’ll try again.


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