The Intentional Fallacy and Social Systems

The Encyclopedia Britannica offers the following definition of intentional fallacy: Intentional fallacy, term used in 20th-century literary criticism to describe the problem inherent in trying…

How systems learn

Here is a passage from Luhmann’s A Systems Theory of Religion: In general, there is no correspondence in the environment…

System Horizons

The boundary separating system and environment is not like a physical boundary that can looked across. It is more accurately…

The Future as Risk

This post is related to earlier posts on risk and time. In Risk: A Sociological Theory, Luhmann writes, The thesis…

Distinctions as Folds

We might visualize a distinction as a folded sheet of paper. As we fold a sheet of paper, we make…