When the economy differentiates as a function system, aristocratic privilege is lost. Moreover, the aristocrats cannot even process as information what is happening around them. They have no way of making sense of it.
If we want to heal the world, we might look for an effective treatment or therapy. In this context, Roth contrasts solution-focused and problem-focused therapies. A problem-focused therapy, which is the traditional approach, seeks greater understanding of the problem—the diagnosed condition. But greater understanding or insight doesn’t necessarily alleviate the pain or save the patient.
If we are going to discuss social change, we have to consider the materials, technologies, or media that facilitate and shape communication. We can’t just
For Joyce, nationalism was a reactionary politics. As Len Platt wrote in an introductory essay to Finnegans Wake, Joyce came to decry all form of nationalism, linking it to racism and eugenic movements. The language he invented for Finnegans Wake, “Wakesese,” actively resisted nationalism, monoculturalism, and monolingualism.
When discussing organizations, which Luhmann argues consist entirely of decision-based communication, one might ask about buildings, desks, chairs, telephones, computers, electricity, as well as human beings. Aren’t these things essential to most organizations? Shut off the electricity or the Internet access and most organizations stop functioning. Thus, a common criticism of social systems theory relates to materialism or material agency.
The novel as a genre, particularly as written by Turgenev, is all about the study of individuals–what makes people different, not what makes them similar.
The only way to manage the explosion of knowledge in 18th-19th centuries was through specialization. In premodern Europe, the amateur or “gentleman scholar” could be respected. A person of wide learning who studies for the pleasure it, not as a profession, would be much sought after in upper class society, which is the world Hedda Gabbler is accustomed to and wants to return to. When she can’t find it–and other characters’ desires start closing in on her–she shoots herself.